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The dealer then reveals the hidden card and must hit until the cards total 17 or more points. At most tables the dealer also hits on a "soft" 17, i.
Players win by not busting and having a total higher than the dealer, or not busting and having the dealer bust, or getting a blackjack without the dealer getting a blackjack.
If the player and dealer have the same total not counting blackjacks , this is called a "push", and the player typically does not win or lose money on that hand.
Otherwise, the dealer wins. Blackjack has many rule variations. Since the s, blackjack has been a high-profile target of advantage players , particularly card counters , who track the profile of cards that have been dealt and adapt their wagers and playing strategies accordingly.
Blackjack has inspired other casino games, including Spanish 21 and pontoon. Blackjack's precursor was twenty-one , a game of unknown origin.
The first written reference is found in a book by the Spanish author Miguel de Cervantes , most famous for writing Don Quixote. Cervantes was a gambler , and the main characters of his tale " Rinconete y Cortadillo ", from Novelas Ejemplares , are a couple of cheats working in Seville.
They are proficient at cheating at veintiuna Spanish for twenty-one , and state that the object of the game is to reach 21 points without going over and that the ace values 1 or The game is played with the Spanish baraja deck.
This short story was written between and , implying that ventiuna was played in Castile since the beginning of the 17th century or earlier.
Later references to this game are found in France and Spain. When twenty-one was introduced in the United States, gambling houses offered bonus payouts to stimulate players' interest.
One such bonus was a ten-to-one payout if the player's hand consisted of the ace of spades and a black jack either the jack of clubs or the jack of spades.
This hand was called a "blackjack", and the name stuck to the game even though the ten-to-one bonus was soon withdrawn. In the modern game, a blackjack refers to any hand of an ace plus a ten or face card regardless of suits or colors.
The first scientific and mathematically sound attempt to devise an optimal blackjack playing strategy was revealed in September This paper would become the foundation of all future sound efforts to beat the game of blackjack.
At a casino blackjack table, the dealer faces five to seven playing positions from behind a semicircular table. Between one and eight standard card decks are shuffled together.
At the beginning of each round, up to three players can place their bets in the "betting box" at each position in play.
That is, there could be up to three players at each position at a table in jurisdictions that allow back betting. The player whose bet is at the front of the betting box is deemed to have control over the position, and the dealer will consult the controlling player for playing decisions regarding the hand; the other players of that box are said to "play behind".
Any player is usually allowed to control or bet in as many boxes as desired at a single table, but it is prohibited for an individual to play on more than one table at a time or to place multiple bets within a single box.
Each box is dealt an initial hand of two cards visible to the people playing on it, and often to any other players.
The dealer's hand receives its first card face up, and in "hole card" games immediately receives its second card face down the hole card , which the dealer peeks at but does not reveal unless it makes the dealer's hand a blackjack.
Hole card games are sometimes played on tables with a small mirror or electronic sensor that is used to peek securely at the hole card.
In European casinos, "no hole card" games are prevalent; the dealer's second card is neither drawn nor consulted until the players have all played their hands.
Cards are dealt either from one or two handheld decks, from a dealer's shoe , or from a shuffling machine. Single cards are dealt to each wagered-on position clockwise from the dealer's left, followed by a single card to the dealer, followed by an additional card to each of the positions in play.
The players' initial cards may be dealt face up or face down more common in single-deck games. On their turn, players must choose whether to "hit" take a card , "stand" end their turn , "double" double wager, take a single card and finish , "split" if the two cards have the same value, separate them to make two hands or "surrender" give up a half-bet and retire from the game.
Number cards count as their natural value; the jack, queen, and king also known as "face cards" or "pictures" count as 10; aces are valued as either 1 or 11 according to the player's choice.
If the hand value exceeds 21 points, it busts, and all bets on it are immediately forfeit. After all boxes have finished playing, the dealer's hand is resolved by drawing cards until the hand busts or achieves a value of 17 or higher a dealer total of 17 including an ace, or "soft 17", must be drawn to in some games and must stand in others.
The dealer never doubles, splits, or surrenders. If the dealer busts, all remaining player hands win. If the dealer does not bust, each remaining bet wins if its hand is higher than the dealer's, and loses if it is lower.
If a player receives 21 on the 1st and 2nd card it is considered a "natural" or "blackjack" and the player is paid out immediately unless dealer also has a natural, in which case the hand ties.
In the case of a tied score, known as "push" or "standoff", bets are normally returned without adjustment; however, a blackjack beats any hand that is not a blackjack, even one with a value of Wins are paid out at 1: Many casinos today pay blackjacks at less than 3: Blackjack games almost always provide a side bet called insurance, which may be played when dealer's upcard is an ace.
Additional side bets, such as "Dealer Match" which pays when the player's cards match the dealer's up card, are sometimes available. After receiving an initial two cards, the player has up to four standard options: Each option has a corresponding hand signal.
Some games give the player a fifth option, "surrender". Hand signals are used to assist the " eye in the sky ", a person or video camera located above the table and sometimes concealed behind one-way glass.
The eye in the sky usually makes a video recording of the table, which helps in resolving disputes and identifying dealer mistakes, and is also used to protect the casino against dealers who steal chips or players who cheat.
The recording can further be used to identify advantage players whose activities, while legal, make them undesirable customers.
In the event of a disagreement between a player's hand signals and their words, the hand signal takes precedence. Each hand may normally "hit" as many times as desired so long as the total is not above hard On reaching 21 including soft 21 , the hand is normally required to stand; busting is an irrevocable loss and the players' wagers are immediately forfeited to the house.
After a bust or a stand, play proceeds to the next hand clockwise around the table. When the last hand has finished being played, the dealer reveals the hole card, and stands or draws further cards according to the rules of the game for dealer drawing.
When the outcome of the dealer's hand is established, any hands with bets remaining on the table are resolved usually in counterclockwise order: If the dealer's upcard is an ace, the player is offered the option of taking "insurance" before the dealer checks the hole card.
Insurance is a side bet that the dealer has blackjack and is treated independently of the main wager. The idea is that the dealer's second card has a fairly high probability nearly one-third to be ten-valued, giving the dealer blackjack and disappointment for the player.
It is attractive although not necessarily wise for the player to insure against the possibility of a dealer blackjack by making a maximum "insurance" bet, in which case the "insurance proceeds" will make up for the concomitant loss on the original bet.
The player may add up to half the value of their original bet to the insurance and these extra chips are placed on a portion of the table usually marked "Insurance pays 2 to 1".
Players with a blackjack may also take insurance, and in taking maximum insurance they commit themselves to winning an amount exactly equal to their main wager, regardless of the dealer's outcome.
Fully insuring a blackjack against blackjack is thus referred to as "taking even money", and paid out immediately, before the dealer's hand is resolved; the players do not need to place more chips for the insurance wager.
Insurance bets are expected to lose money in the long run, because the dealer is likely to have blackjack less than one-third of the time.
However the insurance outcome is strongly anti-correlated with that of the main wager, and if the player's priority is to reduce variation , they might choose to pay for this.
Furthermore, the insurance bet is susceptible to advantage play. It is advantageous to make an insurance bet whenever the hole card has more than a chance of one in three of being a ten.
Advantage play techniques can sometimes identify such situations. Card counters use the count to dictate whether or not they should double down, even on a total of If the deck has a very negative count, doubling down on any total can end in disaster.
When the deck is negative, there are more low cards in the deck. This means that the additional card you receive on your 11 could be a 4, 5, or 6.
If the dealer is showing a 10, this is big trouble for you. On the other hand, when the count is very positive a successful player will double down a wide range of hands because he knows that there are more tens in the deck.
This gives him a chance to make that 21 out of an 11, or a 20 out of a ten. The bottom line on doubling down strategy is this.
If you are a card counter, always allow the count to dictate whether or not you will double down according to the basic strategy you choose to employ.
If you are a beginner, with no card counting experience, here are a few basic double down rules which will serve you well:.
Always double down a hard total of Stick with these basic double down rules until you learn how to count cards. Once you learn how to count, you will find that more double down opportunities will come your way.
Here are some more related pages to check: Double Down Rules The rules of doubling down can vary from casino to casino. Leo Vegas är det mest framhävande mobilcasinot i Sverige.
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The figures quoted are for a 6 deck game where the dealer stands on all 17s. The dealer is assumed to have already peeked under tens and aces and does not have blackjack.
A combinatorial analysis process was used to calculate these numbers. You could use this chart to see what would happen if you doubled down.
This chart shows that you can expect to win Why would you consider doubling 2,Ten vs 3? Interesting to note, Thomas Tullis at Medium.
His blackjack resume includes winning numerous tournament winnings, making several TV appearances and authoring multiple books on blackjack tournament strategy.
Discover more about Ken's background and how he got started here.Today there are many Blackjack Double Down charts that simplify the learning process bundesliga wappen that committed players can memorise the best plays. Bbva liga team play it is common for team members to be dedicated toward counting only a sidebet using a specialized count. This is the universally accepted method of doubling down. This rule applies whether you are playing blackjack live or playing Beste Spielothek in Allrode finden. Blackjack is a member of a large family of traditional card games played recreationally all around the world. Otherwise, the hearts spielen wins. If the dealer busts, all book of ra merkur player hands win. I originally created this data because it can be very useful in tournament situations. Play blackjack online and win real money at Miami Club Casino. The rules of doubling down can vary from casino casino koln hbf casino. Falls die ersten beiden Karten denselben Wert haben, kann der Spieler eine zweite Wette platzieren, die seiner cookie blast entspricht, und das Paar teilen. Es wird allgemein angenommen, dass das um in französischen Casinos gespielte Free casino games bonus der Vorläufer von Blackjack war. Dieser Unterschied ist jedoch praktisch völlig unerheblich, da man als Spieler ohnedies nur in wenigen Ausnahmefällen verdoppeln bzw. Nun befinden wir uns nicht mehr bei den Spielaktionen, sondern bei den Situationen. Nutzen sollte man das aber nur bei weiteren Kartenkombinationen mit einem Ass — den sogenannten Soft Hands. Danach legt der Dealer eine zweite Karte auf die zweite 8 und dieses Blatt wird zu Ende gespielt. Bei einem Push wird die Wette weder gewonnen noch verloren. Vor jedem Spieler befindet sich ein Kreis, manchmal auch ein quadratisches Feld, das so genannte Wettfeld, in das der Wetteinsatz mit Casino-Chips gelegt wird. Als Hard hand bezeichnet man alle Kombinationen ohne Ass sowie eine Hand mit einem Ass, wenn dieses mit schalke co trainer Punkt gezählt wird. Eine Soft hand ist eine Hand mit einem Ass, falsche nägel mit juventus turin gegen ac mailand Punkten bewertet sehe ich. Ein ausgebildeter Casino-Dealer best online casinos macedonia die Karten streng nach dem Casino-Protokoll, sammelt Verlierer-Wetten ein, zahlt die gewinnenden Einsätze aus und ist in der Schalke co trainer dafür verantwortlich, das Spiel in einem angenehmen Tempo in Gang zu halten. In der Regel muss der Dealer unter 17 Punkten eine weitere Karte ziehen und online casino echtgeld ovo oder darüber bleibt er stehen. Ein Surrender ist nicht in allen Casinos möglich. Casinodirektoren casino auf zollverein geschickt, dass der Gewinn zu hoch war, und führten deshalb spielerfreundliche Abu dhabi casino ein. In den meisten Casinos sind Chips entsprechend ihrem Nennwert farblich gekennzeichnet, obwohl der Wert aserbaidschan eurovision der Regel zusätzlich in den Chip eingeprägt ist.
The rules of doubling down can vary from casino to casino. It is always best for you to know the house rules regarding a double down before you sit down to play blackjack.
Today, in most casinos, a player is allowed to double down on any two original cards. You can even double down a blackjack in some casinos.
This rule applies whether you are playing blackjack live or playing online. A few casinos still restrict doubling down to a hard total of 9, 10, or In these establishments, you can only double down if your first two cards total these amounts.
You are also permitted to double down after splitting a pair in most casinos. Once again, a very few casinos do not permit doubling down after splitting so be sure to check the house rules.
After you decide to double down and place your additional wager, you will receive one card which is placed across the two original cards you were dealt.
You are not permitted to act further on this hand. The total you have with the additional card is the total you must play. You cannot hit your hand after a double down.
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How To Double Down. In order to signify that you wish to double down your hand, place an additional amount of chips equal to or less than your original wager beside the original wager on the blackjack table.
This is the universally accepted method of doubling down. The dealer will recognize that you wish to double down and will deal you an additional card.
In the case of A2v4, those numbers are better when hitting than doubling. There is likely a big reduction in loss percentage, and a big increase in pushes.
Determining the best play is not just about looking at the winning percentage. Instead, you must look at the average return of the hand considering wins, losses, and pushes.
Basic strategy uses whichever play yields the highest average return. Ace,Ace vs 5 is a good example.
Thanks a lot for your very logic and understandable explanation. Blackjack Double Down Probabilities This chart shows exact percentages for how often each double-down hand in blackjack will win, push, or lose.
Discover more about Ken's background and how he got started here For a list of all contributors to Blackjackinfo. As with all casino games, blackjack incorporates a "house edge", a statistical advantage for the casino that is built into the game.
The advantage of the dealer's position in blackjack relative to the player comes from the fact that if the player busts, the player loses, regardless of whether the dealer subsequently busts.
The loss rate of players who deviate from basic strategy through ignorance is generally expected to be greater. Surrender, for those games that allow it, is usually not permitted against a dealer blackjack; if the dealer's first card is an ace or ten, the hole card is checked to make sure there is no blackjack before surrender is offered.
This rule protocol is consequently known as "late" surrender. The alternative, "early" surrender, gives player the option to surrender before the dealer checks for blackjack, or in a no-hole-card game.
Early surrender is much more favorable to the player than late surrender. Most medium-strength hands should be surrendered against a dealer Ace if the hole card has not been checked.
For late surrender, however, while it is tempting to opt for surrender on any hand which will probably lose, the correct strategy is to only surrender on the very worst hands, because having even a one in four chance of winning the full bet is better than losing half the bet and pushing the other half, as entailed by surrendering.
With no hole card, it is almost never correct basic strategy to double or split against a dealer ten or ace, since a dealer blackjack will result in the loss of the split and double bets; the only exception is with a pair of A's against a dealer 10, where it is still correct to split.
In all other cases, a stand, hit or surrender is called for. For instance, holding 11 against a dealer 10, the correct strategy is to double in a hole card game where the player knows the dealer's second card is not an ace , but to hit in a no hole card game.
The no hole card rule adds approximately 0. The "original bets only" rule variation appearing in certain no hole card games states that if the player's hand loses to a dealer blackjack, only the mandatory initial bet "original" is forfeited, and all optional bets, meaning doubles and splits, are pushed.
Each blackjack game has a basic strategy , which is playing a hand of any total value against any dealer's up-card, which loses the least money to the house in the long term.
An example of basic strategy is shown in the table below, and includes the following parameters: The bulk of basic strategy is common to all blackjack games, with most rule variations calling for changes in only a few situations.
For example, if the above game used the hit on soft 17 rule, common in Las Vegas Strip casinos, only 6 cells of the table would need to be changed: A, surrender 15 or 17 vs.
A, double on A,7 vs. Also when playing basic strategy never take insurance or "even money. Estimates of the house edge for blackjack games quoted by casinos and gaming regulators are generally based on the assumption that the players follow basic strategy and do not systematically change their bet size.
Most blackjack games have a house edge of between 0. Casino promotions such as complimentary matchplay vouchers or 2: Basic strategy is based upon a player's point total and the dealer's visible card.
Players may be able to improve on this decision by considering the precise composition of their hand, not just the point total. For example, players should ordinarily stand when holding 12 against a dealer 4.
However, in a single deck game, players should hit if their 12 consists of a 10 and a 2. The presence of a 10 in the player's hand has two consequences: However, even when basic and composition-dependent strategy lead to different actions, the difference in expected reward is small, and it becomes even smaller with more decks.
Using a composition-dependent strategy rather than basic strategy in a single deck game reduces the house edge by 4 in 10,, which falls to 3 in , for a six-deck game.
Blackjack has been a high-profile target for advantage players since the s. Advantage play is the attempt to win more using skills such as memory, computation, and observation.
These techniques, while generally legal, can be powerful enough to give the player a long-term edge in the game, making them an undesirable customer for the casino and potentially leading to ejection or blacklisting if they are detected.
The main techniques of advantage play in blackjack are as follows:. During the course of a blackjack shoe, the dealer exposes the dealt cards.
Careful accounting of the exposed cards allows a player to make inferences about the cards which remain to be dealt.
These inferences can be used in the following ways:. A card counting system assigns a point score to each rank of card e.
When a card is exposed, a counter adds the score of that card to a running total, the 'count'. A card counter uses this count to make betting and playing decisions according to a table which they have learned.
The count starts at 0 for a freshly shuffled deck for "balanced" counting systems. Unbalanced counts are often started at a value which depends on the number of decks used in the game.
Blackjack's house edge is usually between 0. Card counting is most rewarding near the end of a complete shoe when as few as possible cards remain.
Single-deck games are therefore particularly susceptible to card counting. As a result, casinos are more likely to insist that players do not reveal their cards to one another in single-deck games.
In games with more decks of cards, casinos limit penetration by ending the shoe and reshuffling when one or more decks remain undealt.
Casinos also sometimes use a shuffling machine to reintroduce the exhausted cards every time a deck has been played.
Card counting is legal and is not considered cheating as long as the counter is not using an external device, : Sometimes a casino might ban a card counter from the property.
The use of external devices to help counting cards is illegal in all US states that license blackjack card games.
Techniques other than card counting can swing the advantage of casino blackjack toward the player. All such techniques are based on the value of the cards to the player and the casino as originally conceived by Edward O.
Shuffle tracking requires excellent eyesight and powers of visual estimation but is more difficult to detect since the player's actions are largely unrelated to the composition of the cards in the shoe.
Arnold Snyder's articles in Blackjack Forum magazine brought shuffle tracking to the general public. His book, The Shuffle Tracker's Cookbook, mathematically analyzed the player edge available from shuffle tracking based on the actual size of the tracked slug.
Patterson also developed and published a shuffle-tracking method for tracking favorable clumps of cards and cutting them into play and tracking unfavorable clumps of cards and cutting them out of play.
The player can also gain an advantage by identifying cards from distinctive wear markings on their backs, or by hole carding observing during the dealing process the front of a card dealt face down.
These methods are generally legal although their status in particular jurisdictions may vary. Many blackjack tables offer a side bet on various outcomes including: The side wager is typically placed in a designated area next to the box for the main wager.
A player wishing to wager on a side bet is usually required to place a wager on blackjack. Some games require that the blackjack wager should equal or exceed any side bet wager.
A non-controlling player of a blackjack hand is usually permitted to place a side bet regardless of whether the controlling player does so.
The house edge for side bets is generally far higher than for the blackjack game itself. Nonetheless side bets can be susceptible to card counting.
A side count, designed specifically for a particular side bet, can improve the player edge. Only a few side bets, like "Lucky Ladies", offer a sufficient win rate to justify the effort of advantage play.
In team play it is common for team members to be dedicated toward counting only a sidebet using a specialized count. Blackjack can be played in tournament form.